How did the world experience and respond to the 1945 atomic bombings? What did Hiroshima come to symbolize for the global policy frameworks of nuclear technology? How was the devastation of Hiroshima and Nagasaki reconciled with the later development of nuclear weapons? With “Atoms for Peace”? What did we learn about the impact of radiation on human health and the environment, and what role did such knowledge play in the making of the nuclear world? In sum, how has the world come to live with the nuclear presence that is part of our life today? The workshop will revisit these enduring questions in light of new sources and recent scholarship. We hope to synthesize the current knowledge and identify research areas to be pursued in the future.